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Self-synthesizing mobile genetic elements: unexpected key players in the evolution of viruses and defense systems
时间:2017-11-10 10:07:10 阅读量:


讲座题目:Self-synthesizing mobile genetic elements: unexpected key players in the evolution of viruses and defense systems
报告人:Dr. Mart Krupovic(Department of Microbiology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France)
邀请人:陈向东
时间:2017年11月10日(周五)下午3:00
地点:武汉大学生命科学学院一楼中厅

 


讲座摘要:Genomes of cellular organisms in all three domains of life are full of integrated mobile genetic elements (MGE), which are extremely diverse in their genetic complexity and gene content. Whereas most MGE for replication employ the host machinery, some encode their own DNA polymerases (DNAP) and are often referred to as self-synthesizing MGE. In my talk, I will present three unrelated superfamilies of self-synthesizing MGE, which are postulated to have played key roles in the evolution of viruses and antiviral defense systems. In particular, the eukaryotic elements, called Polintons, could have been the ancestors of a broad range of eukaryotic DNA viruses, including adenoviruses and giant viruses. The other branch of self-synthesizing MGE, dubbed Casposons, recently discovered bacteria and archaea, apparently played a pivotal role in the origin of the prokaryotic adaptive immunity, giving rise to the adaptation module of the CRISPR-Cas systems. Finally, the third group of elements, called Pipolins, encode a unique DNAP with unexpected biochemical activities, providing insights into the evolution of these enzymes. Collectively, these finding highlight the intricate evolutionary relationships between diverse groups of MGE and reaffirm the notion that perennial arms race between genetic parasites and their hosts leads to major evolutionary innovations.

报告人简介:
Mart Krupovic 先生1999年至2005年在立陶宛的Vilnius University大学学习,先后获得生物化学学士和硕士学位;2006年至2010年在芬兰赫尔辛基大学学习,师从国际著名病毒学家,芬兰科学院院士Dennis H. Bamford教授,获普通微生物学方向博士学位;2010年至2012年,法国巴斯德研究所博士后,期间曾在美国NIH做短期访问学者;2012年至2014年为法国巴斯德研究所研究科学家(终身职位);2015年1月破格提拔为法国巴斯德研究所有终身职位的Scientist,相当于副教授。

MART KRUPOVIC博士是一位年轻有为的学者,主要从事病毒进化方面的研究,在极端环境微生物,特别是极端嗜热、嗜盐古菌病毒方面颇有建树。从2006年开始攻读博士学位至今的10年左右时间内,他在各种学术专业期刊上已经累计发表了90多篇科研论文,其中第一作者和通讯作者论文60篇。重要的第一作者和通讯作者论文包括:Science 1篇,Nature 1篇,PNAS 2篇;Nature Rev Microbiol 4篇;Nature Rev Genet .1篇;Nature Commun 1篇;Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1篇;mBio 1篇;Curr Opin Virol 4篇;Curr Opin Microbiol 1篇; Mol Cell Proteomics 1篇;ISME J 1篇;Mol Microbiol 3篇;J Virol 9篇;Mol Biol Evol 1篇;Appl Environ Microbiol 2篇;BioEssays 1篇;J Mol Biol J 1篇;BMC Biol 1篇;Virology 2篇;Sci Rep 1篇;Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1篇;BMC Genomics 1篇. 此外,他还参与了7部学术专著部分章节的编著工作,获得了多项国际学术奖励,在众多国家学术会议上做特邀发言(详见其个人简历)。

MART KRUPOVIC博士现为Research in Microbiology (Elsevier)编辑(Editor),Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group)编委会成员(Editorial Board Member);Virus Evolution (Oxford University Press)的副编辑(Associate Editor);Biology Direct (BioMed Central) 编委会成员(Editorial Board Member);并曾担任Current Opinion in Virology (Elsevier)的特邀编辑(Guest Editor);目前是国际病毒分类学会委员会委员(Executive committee of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV))。

其目前的研究领域涉及如下几个方面:
1、细菌、古菌病毒与宿主间的相互作用,特别是病毒感染和释放的机理(Virus-host interactions in bacteria and archaea, with special focus on the entry and exit strategies)
2、从原核微生物基因组进化的视角来确定和解析细菌和古菌中的温和病毒,及微生物基因组中各种可移动遗传元件(Detection and characterization of proviruses in bacteria and archaea and impact of various mobile genetic elements on the evolution of prokaryotic genomes)
3、三域生物单链DNA病毒的多样性和进化关系(Diversity and evolution of ssDNA viruses in the three domains of life)
4、不同病毒家族之间及病毒与各种可移动遗传学元件(例如质粒、转座子)之间的深度进化关系(Deep evolutionary connection between different virus families as well as between viruses and other types of mobile genetic elements (ie, plasmids, transposons, etc))
5、病毒的起源(Origin of viruses)